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Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system within an organism. Neural stem cells are derived from the ectoderm and differentiate into neural crest cells, glial progenitor cells, and neuronal progenitor cells. Markers for neural stem cells include nestin, musashi, and NeuroD. The neural crest further differentiates into a diverse array of cell types including neurons, glia, craniofacial cartilage, and connective tissue, and is sometimes referred to as the fourth primary germ layer. Neural crest markers include FoxD3 and notch1. 
Glial progenitor cells develop into astrocytes, which provide structural support and help form the blood-brain barrier, and oligodendrocytes, which form the insulating myelin sheaths that surround axons. Neuronal progenitor cells, which can be identified using the markers CEND1 and EOMES, give rise to mature neurons.Neuronal Signaling is involved in the regulation of the mechanics of the central nervous system such as its structure, function, genetics and physiology as well as how this can be applied to understand diseases of the nervous system. Every information processing system in the CNS is composed of neurons and glia, neurons have evolved unique capabilities for intracellular signaling and intercellular signaling.


1.Yasuda T, Mochizuki H (2010) The regulatory role of α-synuclein and parkin in neuronal cell apoptosis; possible implications for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Apoptosis 15(11), 1312–21.